These units are charged with Cation (Na+ based) exchange resins. These units exchange calcium and magnesium with sodium ions, forming respective salts.
The Reactions that takes place in the unit are as follows (R – is Resins)
Ca2++ 2 RNa R2Ca + 2Na+
Mg2++ 2 RNa R2Mg + 2Na+
The regeneration of Cation (Na based) Exchangers is done by common salt to regenerate the softener resins. A required concentration of brine solution is used for regeneration of softener resins.
The process of demineralizing water by ion exchange resins consists of the conversion of salts to their corresponding acids by hydrogen cation exchangers and the removal of these acids by anion exchangers. The two exchangers commonly are in series in mild steel rubber lined separate vessels/column, the water passing first through first column and then through the other; in such case demineralization is a “two-step process.” Usually the cation exchanger precedes the anion exchanger. Sometime depending upon the raw/feed water characteristics a degasser is provided after the cation exchanger. Also sometime Weak Acid Cation Exchanger or Weak Base Anion Exchanger required to be incorporated, seeing the raw water quality and cost effectiveness of the design. The two exchangers may also be mixed together in single columns: these are called mixed beds.
We are having expertise in optimum designing of the system seeing the water quality, end use and cost effectiveness. We ensure high quality of fabrication and rubber lining of the systems.
Microfiltration is a low pressure membrane process that rejects suspended solids, colloidal particles, pathogens etc. It’s mainly used prior to Ultra-filtration system or Reverse Osmosis System.
Ultrafiltration is a tangential flow pressure driven filtration process that separates particles on the basis of their molecular weight. The UF removes all the suspended matter & organics. Ultra filtration provides macro-molecular separation of particles in the range of 20-1000 Angstrom (up to 0.1 micron) like bacteria, viruses, proteins and large organic molecules, colloidal and particulate matter. High permeability i.e. molecular weight cut-offs of the ultra-filtration membranes and negligible osmotic effects allow the ultra-filtration process operates at relatively at low pressures (1 to 3 bars). The UF block is provided with on – off auto valves in order carry out operations like:
- Service (Filtration)
- Fast Flush
- Back flush (Top & Bottom)
- Operation of UF Block shall be through Semi-Automatic PLC based panel.
Nanofiltration equipment removes organic compounds in the 250-1000 molecular weight range, also rejecting some salts(typically divalent), and passing more water at lower driving pressure than RO. NF economically softens water without the pollution of regenerated systems and provides unique fractionation capabilities such as organic desalting. It is also used in whey protein recovery.
REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM (RO)
Reverse osmosis is a type of cross-flow membrane filtration which very effectively removes dissolved organics and salts. The medium to high pressurized water flows across a membrane with a portion of the feed permeating (permeate) and balance exits (reject/concentrate). It effectively removes all organic compounds and 99% of all ions. A selection of RO membranes is available to address varying water conditions and requirements. RO can meet most water standards with a single pass system and the highest standards with double-pass system. This process achieves rejections of 99.9% of viruses, bacteria and pyrogens. Pressure in the range of 50 to 1000 psig (3- 69 bars) is the driving force of the RO Purification process.
It is much more energy efficient compared to phase change processes (distillation) and more efficient than the strong chemicals required for ion exchange regeneration.